A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to electricity takes place. The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during the hydrological cycle. The run-off flows to dams downstream. The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the generator. After this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it flows through the hydropower plant.
Normally Hydro Power Projects are constructed in combination with water utilisation or irrigation purposes. Hydro Power plants may be connected to conventional electrical distribution networks as a source of low-cost renewable energy. In Hydro Power Plant, the function of the hydro turbine is to convert hydraulic potential energy of water into the mechanical kinetic energy of the turbine runner, which in turn is converted into electrical energy by the generator.
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